mayo 24, 2013

Referencias sobre Melipona



Ana María Román Díaz
Biblioteca MV José de la Luz Gómez
Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
México, D. F., C. P. 04510
Bases de datos utilizadas
CAB Direct Abstracts
Web of Knowledge

Antimicrobial activity of honey from five species of Brazilian stingless bees. Mercês, M. D.; Peralta, E. D.; Uetanabaro, A. P. T.; Lucchese, A. M.; Centro de Ciências Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil, Ciência Rural, 2013, 43, 4, pp 672-675, 14 ref.
Abstract: The antimicrobial activity of honey produced by Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula and Plebeia sp. were investigated. The agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that all honeys had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but only the samples from M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and F. doederleinei inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. In the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination assay, M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei and T. angustula honeys were more active than that from Plebeia sp. for S. aureus and E. coli. The microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were resistant to the all native stingless bee honeys in both assays. Honeys were more effective against bacteria than a sugar solution, suggesting that the mechanism for bacterial growth inhibition is not only related to the osmotic effect. The results of antimicrobial activity may explain the popular medicinal use of these honeys in bacterial diseases.

Areas of natural occurrence of Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Alves, R. M. O.; Carvalho, C. A. L.; Souza, B. A.; Santos, W. S.; Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 2012, 84, 3, pp 679-688, 32 ref.
Abstract: The bee Melipona scutellaris is considered the reared meliponine species with the largest distribution in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil, with records from the state of Rio Grande do Norte down to the state of Bahia. Considering the importance of this species in the generation of income for family agriculture and in the preservation of areas with natural vegetation, this study aimed at providing knowledge on the distribution of natural colonies of M. scutellaris in the state of Bahia. Literature information, interviews with stinglessbee beekeepers, and expeditions were conducted to confirm the natural occurrence of the species. A total of 102 municipalities showed records for M. scutellaris, whose occurrence was observed in areas ranging from sea level up to 1,200-meter height. The occurrence of this species in the state of Bahia is considered to be restricted to municipalities on the coastal area and the Chapada Diamantina with its rainforests. Geographic coordinates, elevation, climate and vegetation data were obtained, which allowed a map to be prepared for the area of occurrence in order to support conservation and management policies for the species.

Influence of climatic variations on the flight activity of the Jandaira bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (Meliponinae). Oliveira, F. L. de; Dias, V. H. P.; Costa, E. M. da; Filgueira, M. A.; Espínola Sobrinho, J.; Centro de Ciencias Agrarias da Universidade Federal do Ceara, Ceara, Brazil, Revista Ciência Agronômica, 2012, 43, 3, pp 598-603, 24 ref.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to obtain information about the influence of climatic variations on the flight activity of Jandaíra bees, M. subnitida Ducke. The research was conducted in 2006 at the stingless-bee apiaries of the Federal Semi-Arid Rural University do (UFERSA), in Mossoró, RN, from March to June (the rainy season) and September to December (the dry season). For the experiment, five colonies of M. subnitida Ducke were used, where every fortnight, from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m, the flow of bees entering and leaving, and the type of material they carried, were noted. The information collected at the entrance of the colonies was correlated with climatic data, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, collected by an automatic weather station at the time of the evaluations. The joint action of the climatic variations influenced the flight activity of M. subnitida, where the influence of temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation stood out. The wind speed acted only to compensate for the other meteorological factors. The external activities of the Jandaira bee are concentrated in the morning, both in the rainy season from March to June, and in the dry season from September to December. Nectar, water and pollen were collected in greater quantities during the foraging activities of the Jandaira in both periods. Therefore, management of hives in the region, is best carried out in the evening, when the external activities of the bees are coming to an end.

Indigenous bees created in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Pereira, D. S.; Menezes, P. R.; Belchior Filho, V.; Sousa, A. H. de; Maracajá, P. B.; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Mossoro, Brazil, Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, 2011, 5, 1, pp 81-91, 11 ref.
Abstract: This work aimed to perform a survey of the species of aboriginal bees without sting created by stingless bees keepers in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, as well to do a study on its geographic distribution in the state. The research was directed to 104 stingless bees keepers in cities where it had greater concentration of creators of aboriginal bees in Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The species of stingless bees of 104 stingless bees keepers distributed in 29 cities of the state had been investigated. It evidenced that the bee without sting M. subnitida, with 86% of frequency, is the stingless bees species with better geographic distribution in the Rio Grande do Norte state, predominating in all the visited keepers. The P. mosquito specie presented frequency of 4.9%. The presence of this species was not evidenced in all the studied areas, the same occurred with species M. asilvae with 4.3% of frequency, M. scutellaris with a frequency of 1.4%, and P. cupira, Frieseomelitta spp. and F. varia, that together they had answered with frequency of 3.4% in all state.

Melipona scutellaris: general characteristics. Gois, G. C.; Carneiro, G. G.; Silva, E. de O.; Campos, F. S.; F. B. Moreira, Londrina, Brazil, PUBVET, 2010, 4, 16, pp unpaginated, many ref.
Abstract: Before European settlement, the Americas and Australia did not have stinging bees; instead, there were native species of bee that had atrophied stings. The interest in these bees is justified by the nutritional and therapeutic use of honey, and can be an alternative to increase the income of farmers. Besides honey, propolis and pollen are potentially useful as alternative sources of rural income. Zootechnical exploitation of stingless bees for commercial purposes is a recent activity in Brazil and has attracted the interest of producers to new ways of production. It is necessary to promote the conservation and diversity of these bees, freeing them from the risk of extinction.

Microbiological quality of honey bee Melipona scutellaris. Gois, G. C.; Carneiro, G. G.; Rodrigues, A. E.; Silva, E. de O.; Campos, F. S.; F. B. Moreira, Londrina, Brazil, PUBVET, 2010, 4, 9, pp unpaginated, 4 ref.
Abstract: With the development of commercial establishment of native bees, there has been a greatinterest in the identification and characterization of honey come from stingless bees, to characterise it as food and also as a bactericide. Given this, this study aims to examine the characteristics of microbiological of honey bees Melipona scutellaris. The experiment was conducted in the Meliponário Module of Beekeeping and silkworm farming and the Laboratory of Plant, belonging to the Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Federal University of Paraiba, Campus II, during the period August 2007 to August 2008. The honey used for conducting the survey was from hives of bees M. scutellaris (uruçu) nest in Meliponário Sector of Beekeeping in commercial boxes that were numbered 1 to 7 for identification. The honey was placed on plates containing half BDA (Potato Dextrose Agar), totaling 7 treatments and 5 repetitions. All the honey used was from the Goupia glabra Aubl. The honey from hives had microorganisms that ranged from Penicilium digitatum, Penicilium sp., Aspergillus flavus, and yeasts and bacteria not identified.

Physical-chemical parameters of stingless bee (Melipona subnitida) honey after heat treatment. Freitas, W. E. de S.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Soares, K. M. de P.; Mendes, F. I. de B.; Oliveira, V. R. de; Lucas, C. R.; Santos, M. C. A. dos; Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Mossoro, Brazil, Acta Veterinaria Brasilica, 2010, 4, 3, pp 153-157, 18 ref.
Abstract: This study assessed some honey quality parameters from bee species (Melipona subnitida) subjected to thermal treatment. Honey samples about 1 Kg were taken from Melipona subnitida ("jandaíra"). These samples were fractioned in Chemistry Laboratory from DACS (UFERSA). A part of these was analyzed immediately and the other one was subjected to thermal treatment at 70°C during 4, 8, 16, 24 hours. Physical-chemistry characteristics available were moisture content, total acidity, reducing sugar, HMF. The experiment was conducted with samples of honey jandaia subjected to five times of thermal treatments, performed in three replicates. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression. It was found thermal treatment effects on all traits (acidity, pH, moisture, reducing sugars and hydroxymethylfurfural). With the exception of the HMF, the other physical and chemical parameters (moisture, total acidity and reducing sugars) evaluated in honey Jandaira remained within specification suggested for quality control of honey from stingless bees.

Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): cell types and their role in phagocytosis. Amaral, I. M. R.; Moreira Neto, J. F.; Pereira, G. B.; Franco, M. B.; Beletti, M. E.; Kerr, W. E.; Bonetti, A. M.; Ueira-Vieira, C.; Elsevier, Oxford, UK, Micron, 2010, 41, 2, pp 123-129
Abstract: Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 µm fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris.

Physical-chemical characterization of honey of guarana ("Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis") in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso. Fujii, I. A.; Rodrigues, P. R. M.; Ferreira, M. do N.; Escola de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Bahia, Brazil, Revista Brasileira de Saude e Producao Animal, 2009, 10, 3, pp 645-653, 27 ref.
Abstract: It was determined the physical-chemical characteristics and the pollinic origins of 17 samples of honey from guarana plant cultivation (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis), produced by Apis mellifera L, Scaptotrigona sp. L and Melipona seminigra sp. honey bee species in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Pollinic and physical-chemical analysis were determined, considering the variables humidity rate, free acidity, reducing sugar in inverted sugar, apparent sucrose, ashes and solids insoluble in water, comparing the samples to the identity and quality standards established by the local legislation. Means comparisons were made by the Dunnet test at 5% probability. The humidity rate for honey produced by indigenous honey bees - Scaptotrigona sp. and Melipona seminigra sp. - was high when compared to honey produced by Africanized honey bees, and the levels of reducing sugars for Scaptotrigona sp. were low. Any other determinations were accordingly to standards imposed by Brazilian legislation. Through pollinic analysis, it was verified that the pollen from guarana flower was present in all samples of honey, being considered dominant pollen, with 80% of the pollen grain in the samples, showing the apicultural potential of this species as a honey plant.

Flavonoids, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of propolis of stingless bees, Melipona quadrifasciata, Melipona compressipes, Tetragonisca angustula, and Nannotrigona sp. from Brazil and Venezuela. Manrique, A. J.; Santana, W. C.; Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas (INIA), Maracay, Venezuela, Zootecnia Tropical, 2008, 26, 2, pp 157-166, 46 ref.
Abstract: The flavonoid content and the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Brazilian and Venezuelan propolis from stingless bees, Melipona quadrifasciata, M. compressipes, Tetragonisca angustula and Nannotrigona sp., were evaluated using ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) against Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. The propolis samples were collected in 3 locations (São Paulo State, Brazil and Miranda and Guárico States, Venezuela) from November 2003 to April 2004. The results showed that the flavonoid content was very low for all samples, ranging from 0.19 to 0.32%. The antioxidant activity was lower than 22 s for all samples (3-5 s on average). The EEP from M. quadrifasciata bees showed a higher antioxidant activity than that from the other stingless bees. All EEP showed a high antibacterial activity, with an inhibition halo between 11 and 30 mm, against S. aureus and Micrococcus luteus for all Brazilian and Venezuelan samples, respectively. The EEP from Nannotrigona sp. showed a higher antibacterial activity than that from other bees. The propolis studied showed high antibacterial and antioxidant activities despite lower flavonoid percentages.

Adaptation and foraging behavior of the stingless bee (Melipona subnitida) Ducke in a caged environment. Cruz, D. de O.; Freitas, B. M.; Silva, L. A. da; Silva, E. M. S. da; Bomfim, I. G. A.; Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringa, Brazil, Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences, 2004, 26, 3, pp 293-298, 34 ref.
Abstract: The effect of caged environment on the foraging behaviour of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida was studied in Ceará, Brazil. Species adaptation to enclosures, foraging behavioural aspects and daily foraging pattern were investigated in greenhouse-grown sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum). The results showed that M. subnitida adapts well to greenhouses and forages throughout the day. It may be concluded that this bee species can be used for crop pollination in protected environments.

Hypothesis on the origin of the genetic caste determination in Melipona species (Apidae, Meliponinae). Kerr, W. E.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 2-8, 20 ref.
Abstract: This paper describes caste determination in social Apidae, examines the variation in chromosome number in Apinae, and discusses hypotheses for the origin of castes in Melipona species.

Castle-specific gene expression in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Judice, C.; Hartfelder, K.; Festa, F.; Sogayar, M.; Pereira, G. A. G.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 150-155, 25 ref.
Abstract: Results are presented of a study on the differences in gene expression between newly emerged adult queens and workers of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) and cDNA subtractive libraries.
Development of AFLP-markers for the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and their application to the genetic caste determination problem. Makert, G. R.; Paxton, R. J.; Hartfelder, K.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 156-160, 18 ref.
Abstract: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was designed as a highly sensitive method for DNA fingerprinting to be used in plant and animal breeding. Only few studies applied the AFLP methodology to insects, and no AFLP-protocol has been developed for bees. Therefore, we needed to establish and optimize an AFLP method for Melipona quadrifasciata. In this project, we developed AFLP markers for queens and workers. Our objective is to find reliable genetic markers for Melipona caste determination.

Seasonal strategies of harvesting by Melipona sp. in the Amazon region. Cortopassi-Laurino, M.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 258-263, 8 ref.
Abstract: Observation of the flight and foraging activities of bees (Melipona crinita, M. eburnea fuscopilosa, M. grandis, M. flavolineata and M. fuliginosa) were made in the Amazon region, at Xapuri City, Acre, Brazil, for some days during the dry season in October 1999 and during the rainy season in January 2004. Flight activity peaks in both seasons occurred in the first hours of the morning for all Melipona species, except for M. grandis which had a later flight activity peak. In terms of foraging dynamics, a shift in the materials mostly collected was observed, i.e. pollen in the dry season and rubbery resin with seeds and mud in the rainy season. The resin or red pulp with seeds, as well as the mud, are used for building structures inside the nest. Gathering of mud, which was absent in the dry season, reached 48.7% for M. crinita and above 15% in the other bee species. Mud gatherings increased immediately after the storms. Resin gathering, which was low in the dry season, was recorded in more than 25% of bees during the rainy season. Pollen gathering in both seasons occurred at temperatures of 24-26°C and air humidity of 84-95%. White pollens were collected from two species of Myrtaceae, and yellow pollens were collected from three species of Myrtaceae and one species of Umbelliferae [Apiaceae].

The sharing of male production among worker cohorts in Melipona (Apidae, Meliponini). Koedam, D.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 264-270, 21 ref.
Abstract: Studies conducted on hived colonies of Melipona subnitida and M. bicolor inside the Bee Laboratory of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil demonstrate that individual workers contribute to male production in different numbers and that the egg laying potential of workers is regulated by food (nutritional) conditions and social interactions during its ontogeny.

Ovarian development related to activity levels of nurse workers in Melipona bicolor: evolutionary significance. Aponte, O. I. C.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.; Santos Filho, P. S.; Hartfelder, K. H.; Jong, D. de; Pereira, R. A.; Santos Cristino, A. dos; Morais, M. M.; Tanaka, E. D.; Lourenço, A. P.; Silva, J. E. B. da; Almeida, G. F. de; Nascimento, A. M. do; Proceedings of the 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees and VI Encontro sobre Abelhas, Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, 6-10 September, 2004, 2004, pp 271-279, 29 ref.
Abstract: A study of Melipona bicolor was conducted to verify if workers that participated more in the provisioning and oviposition process (POP) are heavier and if they present higher levels of ovarian development. Results revealed the correlation of individual weight and extent of ovarian development with the levels of activity presented by each nurse bee and suggested that ovarian development is necessary for workers to assist effectively in brood production. This study also demonstrated that in M. bicolor, behavioural differences divide nurses into non-layers and layers (of trophic and/or reproductive eggs), with egg layers being the most interested in POP as demonstrated by their continuous presence (constancy) and significant contribution to each process (assiduity). This separation indicates that ovarian development may play an important role in task partition in the colony and that it influences the degree of involvement presented by each worker.

Stingless bees as alternative pollinators and their possible competition with Africanized bees in Tabasco, Mexico. Domínguez-Sanchez, D.; Goulson, D.; Serna-Ramos, R. la; Jones, R. ; International Bee Research Association, Cardiff, UK, Bees without frontiers: Sixth European Bee Conference, Cardiff, UK, 1-5 July 2002, 2002, pp 128-133, 15 ref.
Abstract: In this paper we present the results of pollination experiments on three tropical crops and competition for food between native stingless bees and the introduced Africanized honeybees. The work was carried out during the spring of the year 2001 in Tabasco, Mexico. For Byrsonima crassifolia and Spondias mombin the presence of bees as pollinators increased the number of fruit set, but for Citrullus lanatus hand pollination treatment produced more fruits. Melipona and Africanized bees collected nectar on early a similar number of flowering plants - 9 and 12 respectively, but Melipona collected pollen mainly from 5 species of flowers and Apis on 10, this may affect the reproduction success of the former in long term.
Ultrastructure of the ducts of the reproductive tract of males of Melipona bicolor bicolor lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apinae, Meliponini). Dallacqua, R. P.; Cruz-Landim, C. da; Blackwell Wissenschafts-Verlag GmbH, Berlin, Germany, Anatomia Histologia Embryologia, 2003, 32, 5, pp 276-281, 39 ref.
Abstract: The present paper describes the ultrastructural features of seminal vesicle, post-vesicular vas deferens and ejaculatory duct of Melipona bicolor bicolor from newly emerged and mature males. Although the results do not show very consistent morphological signs of secretory activity by the epithelium of these organs, lipidic droplets and lamellar granules present in mature males' seminal vesicles and the vacuoles present in post-vesicular vas deferens are probably secretion. Besides, the spermatozoa in the lumen are immersed in a material of characteristic structure, which must be produced in superior regions of the reproductive system of immature males, not studied here. The presence of sperm cells, apparently in cytoplasm vesicles of seminal vesicle and post-vesicular vas deferens, suggests spermiophagy by their epithelium.

Offspring Analysis in a Polygyne Colony of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) by Means of Morphometric Analyses. de Carvalho, CAL (Lopes de Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo); Santos, WD (Santos, Wyratan da Silva); Nunes, LA (Nunes, Lorena Andrade); Souza, BD (Souza, Bruno de Almeida); Zilse, GAD (de Carvalho Zilse, Gislene Almeida); Alves, RMD (de Oliveira Alves, Rogerio Marcos). SOCIOBIOLOGY. Vol: 57 (2) pp. 347-354. 2011
Abstract: In the few cases of polygyne colonies in Melipona the presence of active queens is common, generating offspring from different maternal origins. One of the techniques employed to identify maternity of the offspring is morphometric analysis, which allows inter- and intraspecific groups to be discriminated. The objective of this study was to identify the maternal source of Melipona scutellaris workers from a polygyne colony with five queens using wing morphometric analysis. The right forewings and hindwings of 209 workers were used. The workers came from a brood disk extracted from the colony and taken to a B.O.D. incubator maintained at 28 +/- 1 degrees C and 75% relative humidity. Conventional and geometric morphometry analyses were made. Groups were discriminated, indicating that the material analyzed had different maternal origins, with predominance of one queen, which was responsible for 57% of the progeny. Cluster analysis allowed to confirm that the use of conventional morphometry can identify offspring groups from existing queens in a M scutellaris polygyne colony. However, such identification was not possible with geometric morphometry

Genome size variation in Melipona species (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and sub-grouping by their DNA content. Tavares, MG (Tavares, Mara Garcia); Carvalho, CR (Carvalho, Carlos Roberto); Soares, FAF (Ferrari Soares, Fernanda Aparecida). APIDOLOGIE. Vol: 41 (6) pp. 636-642. 2010
Abstract: The stingless bees of the genus Melipona comprise a group with approximately 40 Neotropical species. Despite their ecological and economic importance, the size of the genomes of these species remains poorly known. Thus, the present study measured the DNA content of 15 Melipona species. The mean genome size (1C) of the females ranged from 0.27 pg to 1.38 pg, with increments of, approximately, 0.12 pg. It was possible to recognize two groups of species: the first presented relatively low DNA content (average = 0.29 pg), while the second showed high DNA content (average = 0.98 pg). This result corroborates the cytogenetic classification of these species into two groups, one of them comprising species with a low heterochromatin content (<50 and="" content="" heterochromatin="" high="" other="" species="" the="" with="">50%). Amongst the groups with low and high DNA content, there was no significant correlation between the DNA content and the size of the bees. The data obtained may aid in the selection of species which are suitable for sequencing projects, besides providing an overview of the diversity in the genome size of the Melipona genus.

Trophallaxis and reproductive conflicts in social bees Contrera, FAL (Contrera, F. A. L.); Imperatriz-Fonseca, VL (Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.); Koedam, D (Koedam, D.). INSECTES SOCIAUX. Vol: 57 (2) pp. 125-132. May 2010
Abstract: In the eusocial Hymenoptera, reproductive division of labour is a key aspect of colony organisation. In most of its species, workers are sterile and are unable to reproduce, while the queen monopolises reproduction. When workers are able to reproduce, a conflict with the queen or with other workers over male production is predicted. Because this reproduction may involve costs for the colony, the potential conflict over male parentage gives rise to important questions, such as what are the proximate mechanisms that allow a queen to control the reproductive potential of its workers, and which factors make some workers fertile and others not. In the groups where it occurs, an important mechanism for the regulation of reproduction is trophallaxis (the process of mutual feeding through regurgitation that occurs in several species of social insects). Trophallaxis gives dominant individuals a trophic advantage by taking nutrients from submissive individuals. In advanced eusocial species of bees, trophallaxis may also serve as an alternative hierarchical interaction in the absence of agonistic conflicts. In this way, trophallaxis not only represents an alternative path for hierarchical interactions, but it may be evolutionary linked to intracolonial conflict among workers

Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): Cell types and their role in phagocytosis. Amaral, IMR (Rodrigues Amaral, Isabel Marques); Neto, JFM (Moreira Neto, Joao Felipe); Pereira, GB (Pereira, Gustavo Borges); Franco, MB (Franco, Mariani Borges); Beletti, ME (Beletti, Marcelo Emilio); Kerr, WE (Kerr, Warwick Estevam); Bonetti, AM (Bonetti, Ana Maria); Ueira-Vieira, C (Ueira-Vieira, Carlos). MICRON. Vol: 41 (2) pp. 123-129. Feb 2010
Abstract: Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 mu m fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes. granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Circulating hemocytes from larvae of Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini): Cell types and their role in phagocytosis. Rodrigues Amaral, Isabel Marques; Moreira Neto, Joao Felipe; Pereira, Gustavo Borges; Franco, Mariani Borges; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos. Micron. Vol: 41 (2) pp. 123-129. Feb 2010
Abstract: Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specifically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by forming an organized multicellular capsule around large parasites. In the current investigation the cellular in the hemolymph third instar larvae of M. scutellaris has been characterized by means of light microscopy analysis and phagocytosis assays were performed in vivo by injection of 0.5 [mu]m fluorescence beads in order to identify the hemocyte types involved in phagocytosis. Four morphotypes of circulating hemocytes were found in 3rd instar larvae: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes. granulocytes and oenocytoids. The results presented plasmatocytes and granulocytes involved in phagocytic response of foreign particles in 3rd instar larvae of M. scutellaris. [copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Global stingless bee phylogeny supports ancient divergence, vicariance, and long distance dispersal. Rasmussen, C (Rasmussen, Claus); Cameron, SA (Cameron, Sydney A.). BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY. Vol: 99 (1) pp. 206-232. Jan 2010
Abstract: Stingless bees (Meliponini) are one of only two highly eusocial bees, the other being the well studied honey bee (Apini). Unlike Apini, with only 11 species in the single genus Apis, stingless bees are a large and diverse taxon comprising some 60 genera, many of which are poorly known. This is the first attempt to infer a phylogeny of the group that includes the world fauna and extensive molecular data. Understanding the evolutionary relationships of these bees would provide a basis for behavioural studies within an evolutionary framework, illuminating the origins of complex social behaviour, such as the employment of dance and sound to communicate the location of food or shelter. In addition to a global phylogeny, we also provide estimates of divergence times and ancestral biogeograhic distributions of the major groups. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses strongly support a principal division of Meliponini into Old and New World groups, with the Afrotropical+Indo-Malay/Australian clades comprising the sister group to the large Neotropical clade. The meliponine crown clade is inferred to be of late Gondwanan origin (approximately 80 Mya), undergoing radiations in the Afrotropical and Indo-Malayan/Australasian regions, approximately 50-60 Mya. In the New World, major diversifications occurred approximately 30-40 Mya. (C) 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 99, 206-232.

Postembryonic Development of Rectal Pads in Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Santos, CG (Santos, Carolina Goncalves); Neves, CA (Neves, Clovis Andrade); Zanuncio, JC (Zanuncio, Jose Cola); Serrao, JE (Serrao, Jose Eduardo). ANATOMICAL RECORD-ADVANCES IN INTEGRATIVE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY .Vol: 292 (10) pp. 1602-1611. Oct. 2009
Abstract: The morphology and development of the digestive tract of insects has been extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the development of the rectal pads. These organs are responsible for absorption of water and salts. In insects where they occur, there are usually six ovoid rectal pads located in the medial-anterior portion of the rectum. The rectal pad has three types of cells: principal, basal, and junctional. The arrangement of these three cell types delimits an intrapapillary lumen. The aim of the current study is to describe the development of the rectal pads during postembryonic development of Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides and Melipona scutellaris. Specimens were analyzed at the following developmental stages: white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae, and adult workers. The development of the rectal pad begins as a thickening of the epithelium in white-eyed pupae at 54 hr. At this stage, there is neither a basal cell layer nor intrapapillary lumen. The basal layers begin to form in the pink-eyed pupa and are completely formed at the end of the development of the brown-eyed pupa. In the brown-eyed pupal stage, the intrapapillary lumen is formed and the junctional cells are positioned and completely differentiated. Necrotic and apoptotic cell death were detected along with cell proliferation in the whole rectum during pupal development, suggesting that the development of the rectal pads involves cell proliferation, death, and differentiation. The rectal pads originate only from the ectoderm. Anat Rec, 292:1602-1611, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Intergenerational reproductive parasitism in a stingless bee. Oldroyd, BP (Oldroyd, Benjamin P.); Beekman, M (Beekman, Madeleine). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. Vol: 18 (19) pp. 3958-3960. Oct 2009
Abstract: Insect colonies have been traditionally regarded as closed societies comprised of completely sterile workers ruled over by a single once-mated queen. However, over the past 15 years, microsatellite studies of parentage have revealed that this perception is far from the truth (Beekman & Oldroyd 2008). First, we learned that honey bee queens are far more promiscuous than we had previously imagined (Estoup et al. 1994), with one Apis dorsata queen clocked at over 100 mates (Wattanachaiyingcharoen et al. 2003). Then Oldroyd et al. (1994) reported a honey bee colony from Queensland, where virtually all the males were sons of a single patriline of workers - a clear case of a cheater mutant that promoted intra-colonial reproductive parasitism. Then we learned that both bumble bee colonies (Lopez-Vaamonde et al. 2004) and queenless honey bee colonies (Nanork et al. 2005, 2007) are routinely parasitized by workers from other nests that fly in and lay male-producing eggs that are then reared by the victim colony. There is even evidence that in a thelytokous honey bee population, workers lay female-destined eggs directly into queen cells, thus reincarnating themselves as a queen (Jordan et al. 2008). And let us not forget ants, where microsatellite studies have revealed equally bizarre and totally unexpected phenomena (e. g. Cahan & Keller 2003; Pearcy et al. 2004; Fournier et al. 2005). Now, in this issue, Alves et al. (2009) use microsatellites to provide yet another shocking and completely unexpected revelation about the nefarious goings-on in insect colonies: intergenerational reproductive parasitism by stingless bee workers.

The queen is dead-long live the workers: intraspecific parasitism by workers in the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Alves, DA (Alves, D. A.); Imperatriz-Fonseca, VL (Imperatriz-Fonseca, V. L.); Francoy, TM (Francoy, T. M.); Santos, PS (Santos-Filho, P. S.); Nogueira-Neto, P (Nogueira-Neto, P.); Billen, J (Billen, J.); Wenseleers, T (Wenseleers, T.). MOLECULAR ECOLOGY. Vol: 18 (19) pp. 4102-4111 Oct. 2009
Abstract: Insect societies are well known for their high degree of cooperation, but their colonies can potentially be exploited by reproductive workers who lay unfertilized, male eggs, rather than work for the good of the colony. Recently, it has also been discovered that workers in bumblebees and Asian honeybees can succeed in entering and parasitizing unrelated colonies to produce their own male offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such intraspecific worker parasitism might also occur in stingless bees, another group of highly social bees. Based on a large-scale genetic study of the species Melipona scutellaris, and the genotyping of nearly 600 males from 45 colonies, we show that similar to 20% of all males are workers' sons, but that around 80% of these had genotypes that were incompatible with them being the sons of workers of the resident queen. By tracking colonies over multiple generations, we show that these males were not produced by drifted workers, but rather by workers that were the offspring of a previous, superseded queen. This means that uniquely, workers reproductively parasitize the next-generation workforce. Our results are surprising given that most colonies were sampled many months after the previous queen had died and that workers normally only have a life expectancy of similar to 30 days. It also implies that reproductive workers greatly outlive all other workers. We explain our results in the context of kin selection theory, and the fact that it pays workers more from exploiting the colony if costs are carried by less related individuals.

Stingless Bees: Chemical Differences and Potential Functions in Nannotrigona testaceicornis and Plebeia droryana Males and Workers. Pianaro, A (Pianaro, Adriana); Menezes, C (Menezes, Cristiano); Kerr, WE (Kerr, Warwick Estevam); Singer, RB (Singer, Rodrigo B.); Patricio, EFLRA (Patricio, Eda Flavia Lotufo R. A.); Marsaioli, AJ (Marsaioli, Anita J.). JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY. Vol: 35 (9) pp. 1117-1128. Sep. 2009
Abstract: Cuticular wax, abdominal and cephalic extracts of foraging workers and males of Nannotrigona testaceicornis and Plebeia droryana, from the "Aretuzina" farm in So Simo, SP, Brazil, were analyzed by GC-MS. The principal constituents were hydrocarbons, terpenes, aldehydes, esters, steroids, alcohols, and fatty acids. Interspecific differences for both cuticular wax and cephalic extracts were found. The composition of cuticular wax and cephalic extracts was similar at the intraspecific level, with minor component differences between males and workers. Abdominal extracts differentiated sexes (male and worker) at the intraspecific and interspecific levels. The main chemical components in abdominal extracts of N. testaceicornis workers and males were geranylgeranyl acetate and (Z)-9-nonacosene, respectively. The principal components of abdominal extracts from P. droryana workers and males were tetradecanal and unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), respectively. A secondary alcohol, (S)-2-nonanol, was detected in Plebeia droryana males only, but not in workers. Preliminary field experiments showed that (S)-(+)-2-heptanol and (S)-(+)-2-heptanol/ (S)-(+)-2-nonanol (1:1) attracted workers of P. droryana, N. testaceicornis, and Frieseomelitta silvestrii. However, males did not respond suggesting that these compounds do not function as alarm or recruitment pheromones . In addition, racemic mixtures were inactive.

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